A semi solid and a fatty tissue present inside the spongy portions of bones. As per the medical researches this semi solid tissue constitutes around 4% of the total weight of the body. Bone marrow is responsible to develop the three blood cells RBC (carries blood and nutrients throughout the body), WBC (fights against germs) and Platelets (helpful in producing clots) as the marrow contains Hematopoietic stem cells. In past some years the cases of patients suffering from diseases related to bone marrow has been increased. Leukemia, a certain type of cancer occurring in the bone marrow has been reported by many of the hospitals. There are several other problems occurring in bone marrow due to certain diseases, infection or chemotherapy. Thanks to medical researchers who have initiated the technique like Bone Marrow Transplant to treat Bone Marrow issues. Through Bone Marrow Transplant the damaged stem cells get replaced with the healthy cells. The healthy cells may come from your body or you may take it from a donor. The healthy cells are stored or harvested for some time to grow it properly and use it during the transplant.
Need of Bone Marrow Transplant- there are various reasons behind the transplant of a bone marrow like it can be due to any infection, disease or for the treatment of cancers like Leukemia, Lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Sometimes the bone marrow gets damaged due to chemotherapy or due to some blood inherited diseases like congenital neutropenia (recurring infections are caused), thalassemia (in which a special type of abnormal form of hemoglobin is created by our body) and sickle cell anemia. In all the cases the bone marrow of a human body doesn’t function properly and stops producing healthy blood cells.
Procedure- Same as other surgeries this transplant also requires to check the physical and mental fitness of the patient. Before the transplant patient needs to go through an array of tests and different procedures would be done to check the general health of the patient. The surgeon implants a catheter in the neck or chest of the patient and the Catheter is kept for the whole duration of the treatment. Through catheter only your body will be provided with medication and other blood products.
Types of Bone Marrow Transplant- Transplantation of bone marrow can be done in two ways by transfusing new cells into the body.
Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant- in this medical procedure the donor provides the healthy cells to transfuse with your diseased cells in which a donor may be any of your family members or can be any stranger too. The cells used for transfusion can be taken from the blood of the donor, or from the cells of a donor hipbone and even can be taken from the umbilical cord (which connects a baby into the womb from a mother) of the donor.
Reason for opting Allogeneic Transplant- it can be due to several cancer or noncancerous diseases like Leukemia, bone marrow failure syndromes, multiple myeloma, immune deficiencies etc.
Note: high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy would be given to kill the cells damaged by cancer and the therapy may result into some side effects too so proper doctor consultation is required to a patient going for the transplant. A patient needs to be under proper monitoring after the transplant and has to go through several blood tests and appointments until you recover properly.
Autologous Stem Cell Transplant- in this transplant procedure the stem cells for transfusion are taken from your own body which gets replaced with the damaged cells of your body. This procedure is more beneficial and holds some advantages like there will be no risk of incompatibility if your own stem cell gets transfused inside your body. It has a limitation too as it is possible only if your body produces sufficient healthy stem cells.
Reason for opting Autologous Stem Cell Transplant- it is often done in the case of patients who need to undergo through a heavy dose of radiation therapy and is also opted in the case of Plasma Cell Disorders, Myeloma, Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.
Similar to Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant this procedure also need the strict medication and proper monitoring.
Recommendations for the patient- A patient is required to follow a healthy diet routine which includes ample fruits and vegetables, meat, fish and fibre rich foods must be included in your diet. Alcohol must be avoided and the diet must contain low salt and low fat items. Exercise is also recommended to patients after the transplant as it helps in maintaining the weight, strengthening the bones and muscles and even helps to keep your heart strong.