Endocrinology is a branch of science that deals with the study of various hormones secreted inside our body. Hormones are responsible for the growth, development, mood, metabolism and the sexual function of the body. Adrenaline is a hormone secreted by the adrenaline gland, endocrine gland secretes the hormones which are responsible to maintain the healthy growth of the body. Insulin and Glucagon are the hormones secreted by Pancreas to maintain the sugar level of the body. Our body requires Glucose in a limited range and Insulin and Glucagon is helpful in regulating the amount and is secreted from Pancreas so are known as Pancreatic Endocrine Hormones.
The desired glucose level of a human body is between 70mg/dl and 110mg/dl. If the glucose level goes below 70mg/dl then it is termed as Hypoglycemia. If you have eaten your food before 2 or 3 hours of the test then it is normal that the maximum level of the glucose going above 110. You must have noticed that doctors ask to come for the checkup on fasting i.e. you don’t have to eat anything before the test. If your glucose level goes more than 180 even after eating also then it is not good. A patient is diagnosed with Diabetes if their glucose level goes above 200 after the 2 Glucose Tolerance Test.
Diabetes is not limited to one disability in the body it serves as the root cause of several other harmful diseases in our body like it may lead to problems related to the foot, eye disorder, damages to the nerves and even it results into the heart and vascular diseases.
Symptoms of Diabetes- There are several symptoms which give the primary ideas to the patients that they need to visit an endocrinologist and go for the diagnosis at the early stage including frequent thirst, frequent urination, hunger at the extreme level, sudden unintended weight loss, tiredness, blurred vision, itching on the skin, sores which are not getting healed or frequent infections. If you find any of these symptoms with yourself then you must visit a doctor and go for the proper medication. The symptoms are not similar in each and every patient, they differ in different persons.
Types of Diabetes: There are two types of diabetes witnessing in the medical field.
Type1 Diabetes- it occurs when the hormones maintaining the glucose level get destroyed and when the body is unable to produce insulin. However, this diabetes is not limited to old aged person but can even develop at any age like childhood or before reaching the age of forty. So, to cure this diabetes the treatment is done with Insulin, by providing a healthy diet and by doing some physical exercises.
Cause of Type1 Diabetes- the factors that are responsible for causing this diabetes is generally unknown but it is very clear that if the immune system of the human body stops working then the ability of the body to fight against germs and bacteria gets stopped. However, some environmental factors are also the responsible factors but the weight is not a factor of this diabetes.
Type2 Diabetes- This is the most prevalent diabetes developing in around 85-90% of the patients. In this type of diabetes, the human body is not able to produce proper Insulin or even the body stops insulin. Proper medication and heavy physical activities are recommended by the doctors to cure the illness.
Causes of Type2 Diabetes- The reasons behind this type of diabetes are also uncertain but it is the result of some environmental factors as well as genetic factors too. Unlike Type1 Diabetes, in this diabetes being overweight plays a major role in the illness.
Branches of Endocrinology- there are several branches of Endocrinology focused on a particular diagnosis including:
Pediatric Endocrinology- this subspecialty focuses on the hormones level of the children.
Thyroid Endocrinology- This is helpful in looking at the functioning of the thyroid and how is it affecting the metabolism of the body.
Comparative Endocrinology- it looks at the functioning of similar hormones in different species including insects to fish, birds, and mammals.
Treatments coming under Diabetes and Endocrinology: Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, disorders related to thyroid, Cholesterol disorders, Osteoporosis, PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) and several other disorders related to the glands secreting hormones.